Political

Afghanistan follows a Unitary Presidential form of government, where the head of government is also the head of the state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. Legislation in the country is conducted through people’s representatives in the upper house (Meshrano Jirga) and lower house (Wolesi Jirga).

As political stability in Afghanistan is relatively recent, it is in the process of deepening it further rather than ushering drastic political change in the near future.

During the last decade, freedom of press and rule of law (especially in the urban areas) have improved significantly, and the current government is taking concrete steps to reduce bureaucratic overreach and corruption in the country.

Also, in the past year, regulations have been passed to protect the public from what is viewed as unethical business acts. Furthermore, the principle of a free market has been incorporated in Chapter 1, Article 10 of Afghanistan’s new constitution, which states, “The State encourages and protects private capital investments and enterprises based on the market economy and guarantees their protection in accordance with the provisions of law”. In keeping with this, the government has developed rules and laws for banking, customs, investment, environment, insurance, labor, minerals etc. as well as precise policies for taxation and trade.